Theories pertaining to consciousness have eluded researchers and philosophers for centuries.

Roger Penrose, a world-renowned physicist and mathematician, asked how he would define consciousness, and he said giving definition on consciousness in objective terms rather than subjective ones is premature, and he would rather not define it.

Anirban Bandyopadhyay, who is a materials scientist and physicist, said he has his ways to study consciousness.

“I take the material and I measure the frequencies or compositions with which particular material vibrates, and understand its music, and how that music relates to another element and this way I create a chain,” he said.

One of the concepts in the study of consciousness is ability to understand what self is, and who is the observer, said Deepak Chopra, co-founder and chairman of The Chopra Center for Wellbeing.

“The self is the ground of the awareness in which the experience can rise,” he said.

Despite ongoing exploration of consciousness and its concepts, the future of the study remains unknown, Penrose said.

Christof Koch, professor of biology and engineering at California Institute of Technology, said because we are living in this golden age, these questions on consciousness can be answered but will take at least a couple hundred years.